Urinary catheterisation is a procedure used to drain the bladder and collect urine, through a flexible tube called a catheter.
Urinary catheters are usually inserted by doctors or nurses in hospital or the community.
They can either be inserted through the tube that carries urine out of the bladder (urethral catheter) or through a small opening made in your lower tummy (suprapubic catheter).
The catheter usually remains in the bladder, allowing urine to flow through it and into a drainage bag.
Depending on the type of catheter you have and why it’s being used, the catheter may be removed after a few minutes, hours or days, or it may be needed for the long term.
A urinary catheter is usually used in people who have difficulty passing urine naturally. It can also be used to empty the bladder before or after surgery and to help perform certain tests. Specific reasons include:
The catheter will be used until it’s no longer needed. This may be for a short time and will be removed before leaving hospital, or it may be needed for longer or even permanently.
There are two main types of urinary catheter:
Many people prefer to use an indwelling catheter because it's more convenient and avoids the repeated catheter insertions associated with intermittent catheters. However, indwelling catheters are more likely to cause problems such as infections (see below).
Inserting either type of catheter can be uncomfortable, so anaesthetic gel is used to reduce any pain. You may also experience some discomfort while the catheter is in place, but most people with a long-term catheter get used to this over time.
Read more about the types of urinary catheter.
If you need a long-term urinary catheter, you will be given detailed advice about looking after it before you leave hospital.
This will include advice about getting new catheter supplies, reducing the risk of complications such as infections, spotting signs of potential problems, and when you should seek further medical advice.
You should be able to live a relatively normal life with a urinary catheter. The catheter and bag can be concealed under clothes and you should be able to carry out most everyday activities, including working, exercising, swimming and having sex.
Read more about living with a urinary catheter.
The main problem caused by urinary catheters are infections in the urethra, bladder, or less commonly the kidneys.
These types of infection are known as urinary tract infections (UTIs) and they usually need to be treated with antibiotics.
Catheters can also sometimes lead to other problems, such as bladder spasms (similar to stomach cramps), leakages, blockages and damage to the urethra.
Read more about the risks of urinary catheterisation
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